Building Standalone Apps

The purpose of this guide is to help you create standalone binaries of your Expo app for iOS and Android which can be submitted to the Apple App Store and Google Play Store.
An Apple Developer account is needed to build an iOS standalone app, but a Google Play Developer account is not needed to build the Android standalone app. If you'd like to submit to either app store, you will need a developer account on that store.
It's a good idea to read the best practices about Deploying to App Stores to ensure your app is in good shape to get accepted into the Apple and Google marketplaces. We can generate builds for you, but it's up to you to make your app awesome.

Expo CLI is the tool for developing and building Expo apps. Run npm install -g expo-cli (or yarn global add expo-cli) to get it.
If you haven't created an Expo account before, you'll be asked to create one when running the build command.
Windows users must have WSL enabled. You can follow the installation guide here. We recommend picking Ubuntu from the Windows Store. Be sure to launch Ubuntu at least once. After that, use an Admin powershell to run: Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName Microsoft-Windows-Subsystem-Linux

   "expo": {
    "name": "Your App Name",
    "icon": "./path/to/your/app-icon.png",
    "version": "1.0.0",
    "slug": "your-app-slug",
    "ios": {
      "bundleIdentifier": "com.yourcompany.yourappname",
      "buildNumber": "1.0.0"
    "android": {
      "package": "com.yourcompany.yourappname",
      "versionCode": 1
  • The iOS bundleIdentifier and Android package fields use reverse DNS notation, but don't have to be related to a domain. Replace "com.yourcompany.yourappname" with whatever makes sense for your app.
  • You're probably not surprised that name, icon and version are required.
  • slug is the url name that your app's JavaScript is published to. For example:, where community is my username and native-component-list is the slug.
  • The ios.buildNumber and android.versionCode distinguish different binaries of your app. Make sure to increment these for each build you upload to the App Store or Google Play store.
There are other options you might want to add to app.json. We have only covered what is required. For example, some people like to configure their own build number, linking scheme, and more. We highly recommend you read through Configuration with app.json for the full spec. This is also your last chance to double check our recommendations for App Store metadata.

Run expo build:android or expo build:ios. If you don't already have a packager running for this project, expo will start one for you.

When building for android you can choose to build APK (expo build:android -t apk) or Android App Bundle (expo build:android -t app-bundle). App bundles are recommended, but you have to make sure the Google Play App Signing is enabled for your project, you can read more about it here.
The first time you build the project you will be asked whether you'd like to upload a keystore or have us handle it for you. If you don't know what a keystore is, you can have us generate one for you. Otherwise, feel free to upload your own.
If you choose to let Expo generate a keystore for you, we strongly recommend that you later run expo fetch:android:keystore and backup your keystore to a safe location. Once you submit an app to the Google Play Store, all future updates to that app must be signed with the same keystore to be accepted by Google. If, for any reason, you delete your project or clear your credentials in the future, you will not be able to submit any updates to your app if you have not backed up your keystore.
[exp] No currently active or previous builds for this project.

Would you like to upload a keystore or have us generate one for you?
If you don't know what this means, let us handle it! :)

  1) Let Expo handle the process!
  2) I want to upload my own keystore!
Note: If you choose the first option and later decide to upload your own keystore, we currently offer an option to clear your current Android keystore from our build servers by running expo build:android --clear-credentials. This is irreversible, so only run this command if you know what you are doing! You can download a backup copy of the keystore by running expo fetch:android:keystore. If you do not have a local copy of your keystore , you will be unable to publish new versions of your app to the Play Store. Your only option would be to generate a new keystore and re-upload your application as a new application. You can learn more about how code signing and keystores work in the Android documentation.

You can build standalone apps for iOS with two different types, an archive (expo build:ios -t archive) or simulator (expo build:ios -t simulator) build. With the simulator build, you can test your standalone app on a simulator. If you want to publish your app to the store or distribute it with tools like TestFlight, you have to use the archive.
When building for iOS, you are given a choice of letting the Expo client create the necessary credentials for you, while still having a chance to provide your own overrides. Your Apple ID and password are used locally and never saved on Expo's servers.
$ expo build:ios
[16:44:37] Checking if current build exists...

[16:44:37] No currently active or previous builds for this project.
We need your Apple ID/password to manage certificates, keys
and provisioning profiles from your Apple Developer account.

Note: Expo does not keep your Apple ID or your Apple ID password.

? What's your Apple ID? xxx@yyy.zzz
? Password? [hidden]
✔ Authenticated with Apple Developer Portal successfully!
[16:44:46] You have 4 teams associated with your account
? Which team would you like to use? 3) ABCDEFGHIJ "John Turtle" (Individual)
✔ Ensured App ID exists on Apple Developer Portal!
[16:44:59] We do not have some credentials for you: Apple Distribution Certificate, Apple Push Notifications service key, Apple Provisioning Profile
? How would you like to upload your credentials? (Use arrow keys)
❯ Expo handles all credentials, you can still provide overrides
  I will provide all the credentials and files needed, Expo does limited validation
We ask you if you'd like us to handle your Distribution Certificate or use your own. If you have previously used expo-cli for building a standalone app for a different project, then we'll ask you if you'd like to reuse your existing Distribution Certificate. Similar to the Android keystore, if you don't know what a Distribution Certificate is, just let us handle it for you. If you do need to upload your own certificates, we recommend following this excellent guide on making a P12 file. Note: this guide recommends leaving the P12's password blank, but a P12 password is required to upload your own certificate to Expo's service. Please enter a password when prompted. We'll also help you handle your Push Notifications service key. Remember that Push Notifications service keys are shared across all apps published under the same Apple Developer account.
Note: The Expo build service supports both normal App Store distribution as well as enterprise distribution. To use the latter, you must be a member of the "Apple Developer Enterprise Program". Only normal Apple developer accounts can build apps that can be submitted to the Apple App Store, and only enterprise developer accounts can build apps that can be distributed using enterprise distribution methods. When you call expo build:ios, you just need to choose the correct team, it will be labeled (In-House). At this time, the standalone app builder does not support "ad hoc" distribution certificates or provisioning profiles.

If you are using Push Notifications Certificate and want to switch to Push Notifications Key you need to start build with --clear-push-cert. We will remove certificate from our servers and generate Push Notifications Key for you.

When one of our building machines will be free, it'll start building your app. You can check how long you'll wait on Turtle status site. We'll print a url you can visit (such as to watch your build logs. Alternatively, you can check up on it by running expo build:status. When it's done, you'll see the url of a .apk (Android) or .ipa (iOS) file -- this is your app. Copy and paste the link into your browser to download the file.

If you would like to, we can also alert you via a webhook once the build has finished. Webhooks need to be configured per-project, so if you want to be alerted about builds for both @yourUsername/awesomeApp and @yourUsername/coolApp, you need to run expo webhooks:set --event build --url <webhook-url> in each directory.
After running that command, you'll be asked for a webhook secret. It has to be at least 16 characters long and it will be used to calculate the signature of the request body which we send as the value of the expo-signature HTTP header. You can use the signature to verify a webhook request is genuine. We promise you that we keep your secret securely encrypted in our database.
We call your webhook using an HTTP POST request and we pass data in the request body. Expo sends your webhook with JSON object with following fields:
  • status - a string specifying whether your build has finished successfully (can be either finished or errored)
  • id - the unique ID of your build
  • artifactUrl - the URL to the build artifact (we only include this field if the build is successful)
  • platform - 'ios' | 'android'
Additionally, we send an expo-signature HTTP header with the hash signature of the payload. You can use this signature to verify the request is from Expo. The signature is a hex-encoded HMAC-SHA1 digest of the request body, using your webhook secret as the HMAC key.
Here's an example of how you can implement your server:
import crypto from 'crypto';
import express from 'express';
import bodyParser from 'body-parser';
import safeCompare from 'safe-compare';

const app = express();
app.use(bodyParser.text({ type: '*/*' }));'/webhook', (req, res) => {
  const expoSignature = req.headers['expo-signature'];
  // process.env.SECRET_WEBHOOK_KEY has to match <webhook-secret> value set with `expo webhooks:set ...` command
  const hmac = crypto.createHmac('sha1', process.env.SECRET_WEBHOOK_KEY);
  const hash = `sha1=${hmac.digest('hex')}`;
  if (!safeCompare(expoSignature, hash)) {
    res.status(500).send("Signatures didn't match!");
  } else {
    // do sth here
app.listen(8080, () => console.log('Listening on port 8080'));
If you were to test the above webhook locally, you'd have to use a service like ngrok to forward localhost:8080 via a tunnel and make it publicly accessible to anyone with the URL ngrok gives you.
You can always change your webhook URL and/or webhook secret using the same command you used to set up the webhook for the first time. To see what your webhook is currently set to, you can use expo webhooks:show command. If you would like us to stop sending requests to your webhook, simply run expo webhooks:clear in your project.
Note: We enable bitcode for iOS, so the .ipa files for iOS are much larger than the eventual App Store download available to your users. For more information, see App Thinning.

  • You can drag and drop the .apk into your Android emulator. This is the easiest way to test out that the build was successful. But it's not the most satisfying.
  • To run it on your Android device, make sure you have the Android platform tools installed along with adb, then just run adb install app-filename.apk with USB debugging enabled on your device and the device plugged in.
  • To run it on your iOS Simulator, first build your expo project with the simulator flag by running expo build:ios -t simulator, then download the tarball with the link given upon completion when running expo build:status. Unpack the tar.gz by running tar -xvzf your-app.tar.gz. Then you can run it by starting an iOS Simulator instance, then running xcrun simctl install booted <app path> and xcrun simctl launch booted <app identifier>.
  • To test a device build with Apple TestFlight, download the .ipa file to your local machine. You are ready to upload your app to TestFlight. Within TestFlight, click the plus icon and create a New App. Make sure your bundleIdentifier matches what you've placed in app.json.
Note: You will not see your build here just yet! You will need to use Xcode or Transporter (previously known as Application Loader) to upload your IPA first. Once you do that, you can check the status of your build under Activity. Processing an app can take 10-15 minutes before it shows up under available builds.

For the most part, when you want to update your app, just Publish again from Expo CLI. Your users will download the new JS the next time they open the app. To ensure your users have a seamless experience downloading JS updates, you may want to enable background JS downloads. However, there are a couple reasons why you might want to rebuild and resubmit the native binaries:
  • If you want to change native metadata like the app's name or icon
  • If you upgrade to a newer SDK version of your app (which requires new native code)
To keep track of this, you'll need to update your app's versionCode and buildNumber in app.json (see here for details).
It is a good idea to glance through the app.json documentation to get an idea of all the properties you can change, e.g. the icons, deep linking url scheme, handset/tablet support, and a lot more.
If you run into problems during this process, we're more than happy to help out! Join our Forums and let us know if you have any questions.